Beijing closed some public spaces and stepped up checks at others on Thursday, as most of the Chinese capital's 22 million residents turned up for more mass COVID-19 testing aimed at averting a Shanghai-like lockdown.
Most people in the commercial hub were one month into stressful home isolation, struggling to meet basic needs. But there was hope on the horizon as the number of new cases declined further and officials said their focus was shifting towards boosting vaccinations among the elderly.
Fears were growing, however, that China would be trapped in a whack-a-mole game in coming months, lifting lockdowns in some places, while imposing others elsewhere, causing severe economic damage and exasperating its population.
As Beijing rolled out three rounds of mass testing this week across most of the city, it locked down a number of residential compounds, offices and a university. Some schools, entertainment venues and tourist sites were also shut.
Andrew Ward, 36, a Canadian living in one of Beijing's narrow lanes of courtyard houses known as hutongs, was sent to quarantine in a hotel on Thursday even though his test results were negative.
On Wednesday, people in hazmat suits tested Ward at home after he was identified as a close contact of a COVID-19 case.
"I'm a little bit annoyed, because I spent all that money and time stockpiling food for being locked down at home," said Ward, who works at an international school.
Universal Studios in Beijing said it would require visitors from Friday to show negative test results before they could enter the theme park.
Beijing on Thursday reported 50 new infections for April 27, including some detected among the nearly 20 million samples acquired in the first round of mass testing. That was up from 34 a day earlier.
Since April 22, Beijing has found over 160 cases, more than half in Chaoyang, its most populous district known for its night life, malls and embassies.
China's zero COVID-19 tolerance policy has provoked rare public anger in an important year for President Xi Jinping, over measures that seem surreal to much of the outside world that has chosen to live with the virus, even as infections spread.
Xi is expected to seek a third leadership term this fall and authorities would like to avoid a repeat in the capital of the scenes in Shanghai, where some residents leaned out their windows to beat pots and pans in anger as people in protective suits installed fences around their homes.
China's yuan slipped to 18-month lows against the US dollar on Thursday as COVID-19 outbreaks threatened this year's economic growth target of about 5.5%.
Stock markets (.CSI300), (.SSEC) were off two-year lows, however, in anticipation of more stimulus after Premier Li Keqiang vowed to stabilise employment and revive disrupted supply chains.
Nomura analysts estimate 46 cities are currently in full or partial lockdowns, affecting 343 million people.
Societe Generale estimates that provinces experiencing significant mobility restrictions account for 80% of gross domestic product.
Millions of white- and blue-collar workers whose livelihoods depend on unimpeded mobility between cities have faced severe travel restrictions in recent weeks and the movement of goods has suffered as well.
But the impact goes beyond China, whose economy is crucial for global supply chains.
Industrial conglomerates GE (GE.N) and 3M (MMM.N), and chipmakers Texas Instruments (TXN.O) and SK Hynix (000660.KS) have warned that China's COVID-19 curbs are hurting their revenue. read more
A lockdown in Beijing, which has little manufacturing and many workers can do their jobs from home, would not be as economically damaging. Nevertheless, the capital was in a race against time to avoid Shanghai's mishaps.
New infections in Shanghai were under 100 a day at the start of March before surging to thousands by the end of the month in China's biggest ever outbreak, prompting a citywide lockdown and upending the lives of its 25 million residents.
Most remain confined to their homes, but the city is now readying post-lockdown measures.
"On the condition that epidemic risks are controlled, and with the elderly as the focal point, we are actively promoting COVID-19 vaccinations," said Zhao Dandan, the deputy director of the municipal health commission.
He said districts were now arranging community vaccination vehicles and setting up temporary vaccination stations in care homes. Chinese medical experts have justified heavy-handed COVID-19 policies by flagging fatality risks for thousands of elderly.
The 47 people reported to have died from COVID-19 in Shanghai on April 27 had an average age of 84.7 years, officials said on Thursday.